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The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet began to fall out of use by the Jews in the 5th century BCE, when the Aramaic alphabet was adopted as the predominant writing system for Hebrew.
The present Jewish "square-script" Hebrew alphabet evolved from the Aramaic alphabet.
Archeological evidence of the use of the script by the Israelites for writing the Hebrew language dates to around the 10th century BCE.
Beginning from the 5th century BCE onward, the Aramaic language and script became an official means of communication. Some Paleo-Hebrew fragments of the Torah were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls: manuscripts 4Q12, 6Q1: Genesis. The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet fell completely out of use only after 135 CE.
The paleo-Hebrew alphabet continued to be used by the Samaritans and is also known as the Samaritan alphabet.
The Samaritans, now fewer than 1000 people, have continued to use a derivative of the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, known as the Samaritan alphabet.
According to contemporary scholars, the Paleo-Hebrew script developed alongside others in the region during the course of the late second and first millennia BCE. The earliest known inscription in the Paleo-Hebrew script is the Zayit Stone discovered on a wall at Tel Zayit, in the Beth Guvrin Valley in the lowlands of ancient Judea in 2005.